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Potato was possibly consumed once boiling hot or because the processed foods including due to the fact French fries, potato chips, dried and you can processed carrots

Potato was possibly consumed once boiling hot or because the processed foods including due to the fact French fries, potato chips, dried and you can processed carrots

Undesirable browning colour in the frying process is still a matter of concern due to health aspects, especially its carcinogenicity. Indeed, acrylamide, a toxin formed during potato frying process, is known as a potential carcinogen (Friedman, 2003 ) and mutagen (Segerback et al., 1995 ). Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) had classified acrylamide in Class 2A as a probable human carcinogen (IARC, 1994 ). The formation of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods generally occurs, when heated at high temperatures (over 120°C) under limited humid conditions. It is mainly due to a Maillard reaction which involves reducing sugars (glucose single Country dating and fructose) and an amino acid asparagine (most abundant amino acid in potato). It is important to note that sucrose can be hydrolyzed through acid, enzymatic or thermal treatment acting as a precursor for the formation of reducing sugars (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2009 ; Stadler et al., 2002 ). Reducing sugars are considered to be a limiting factor for acrylamide formation despite the presence of amino acid precursor free asparagine, during the processing of potato products in excess of heat. In order to restrict the formation of acrylamide to low levels, the content of reducing sugars should not exceed 100 mg/100 g FW (Kumar et al.). Moreover, small size tuber (<50-mm size) contains more acrylamide content (322 ppb) because of a high amount of reducing sugar as compared to the large size tubers (>50-mm size) which possess 148 ppb (Po et al., 2018 ).

Though it are lowest than the maize and kidney beans, they produced significantly more necessary protein for every single unit planting city when compared with grains

As basic profile from the acrylamide for the restaurants within the 2002 (Swedish National Restaurants Government, 2002 ), the fresh medical area mobilized and been serious efforts to minimize so it mutagen from the between your dinner business to develop mitigation measures. You to approach would be to generate and use SNP-established molecular indicators for the number of potato varieties which have low cutting sugar or sucrose and you can free asparagine accounts towards the a huge-scale potato breeding program (Fischer et al., 2013 ; Li et al., 2013 ; Schreiber mais aussi al., 2014 ). Unit indicators give a valuable possibility to speeds choice for plant breeders to improve the latest potato cultivars with top operating high quality (minimal reducing sugar and free asparagine, highest lifeless amount posts (DMC), higher specific-gravity and you can starch articles). This type of faculties are polygenic, therefore GWAS according to highest-occurrence genome-wide indicators would be successful having dissecting these state-of-the-art characteristics for the potato.

The latest necessary protein content away from potato ranged anywhere between step one and 2.95 grams/one hundred g towards the new weight basis. Also, potato necessary protein is generally accepted as top quality because of the new visibility off methionine, lysine, tryptophan and you can threonine (Lutaladio & Castaldi, 2009 ).

Tuber in addition to adds up steroidal glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and you will ?-solanine along with their aglycone derivatives such as for instance solasodine and you may solanidine) that will be very important to plant effectiveness pathogens and you can insects but harmful to individuals (Friedman mais aussi al

Potatoes also contain secondary metabolites such as carotenoids (especially xanthophylls) and anthocyanins, which are known as dietary antioxidants and may play major roles in preventing human diseases related to ageing, cancer, obesity and heart attack, which benefits health. The carotenoids (varied from yellow to orange colours) and anthocyanins (red and purple colours) are the two most valuable colouring pigments in potato. Carotenoid amounts and types in tubers exhibit a large variation and are positively correlated with tuber peel and the flesh colour (de Haan Et Al., 2009 ; Sulli et al., 2017 ). The carotenoid contents of white flesh potatoes are generally low (<100 ?g/100 g fresh weight), contrasting to higher amounts in the yellow-fleshed varieties (about 560 ?g/100 g FW; Nesterenko & Sink, 2003 ). A diploid germplasm of Solanum showed carotenoid concentrations of more than 2,000 ?g/100 g FW with intense yellow to near orange flesh colour. The primary tuber carotenoids in potato are lutein, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, although some studies (Andre et al., 2007 ; Bonierbale et al., 2009 ) have also reported the presence of beta-carotene (precursor of provitamin A activity). The relative content of ?-carotene in cv. 'Agria' (yellow flesh) represented 2% of total carotenoids (Lachman et al., 2016 ). White, yellow and orange tuber flesh colours are mainly due to the presence of carotenoids (xanthophylls and beta-carotene; Van Eck, 2007 ). Moreover, antioxidant activity and various phenolic contents are also associated with tuber skin and flesh colour. It is a wrong perception that tuber flesh colour is associated with starch content. In fact, the change in flesh colour of tuber depends on the concentration of carotenoids, not on the starch content. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the SNP markers associated with tuber flesh/skin colour, carotenoids and starch for genetic gains in potato keeping in view the consumer preferability (Ah-hen et al., 2012 ). , 2005 ).

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